Describe the process of catalytic cracking in the petroleum refining industry – Discuss the application of biological and chemical sciences in industry

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Describe the process of catalytic cracking in the petroleum refining industry – Discuss the application of biological and chemical sciences in industry

*Use scientific principles and knowledge to describe chemical and biological phenomena
and solve basic problems.
* Perform accurate scientific calculations.
* Discuss the application of biological and chemical sciences in industry
Section A: Chemical Science (35 marks)
Question 1: Petroleum Refining (Total 5 Marks)
Describe the process of catalytic cracking in the petroleum refining
industry
(2 Marks)
Your answer must also include:
• A balanced chemical equation, physical states included and
reaction conditions stated
• Examples of two products formed from catalytic cracking (in
petroleum refining) and their uses
(1 Mark)
(2 Marks)
All sources need to be acknowledged using Harvard referencing.
Maximum length for Question 1 is ½ side of A4 page.
Answers to Question 1 below please:
Question 2: Buffers (Total 15 Marks)
(a) Define the term buffer solution. (1 Mark)
(b) Give four examples on the use of buffer solutions in everyday life. (4 Marks)
(c) What are the common types of buffers? (2 Marks)
(d) Define the term, ‘Weak Acid’. You answer must include a balanced
chemical equation, physical states included.
(2 Marks)
(e) Explain how a solution containing the weak acid aspirin and its
sodium salt can function as a buffer solution. You answer must
include a balanced chemical equation, physical states included.
Represent aspirin as HAsp and the conjugate base of aspirin as
Asp- in the equations.
(5 Marks)
(f) All sources need to be acknowledged using Harvard referencing.
Include two references.
(1 Mark)
Maximum length for ‘Question 2’ is 1 side of A4 page.
Answers to Question 2 below please:
Question 3: Kinetics ̶ Rates Of Reaction (Total 15 Marks)
1-Bromobutane was hydrolysed by aqueous sodium hydroxide solution.
C4H9Br + NaOH → C4H9OH + NaBr
1-Bromobutane Butan-1-ol
During the reaction the sodium hydroxide is used up. Samples of the reaction mixture
were drawn off at regular time intervals and analysed by titration with standard
hydrochloric acid to find out the concentration of NaOH.
The results are given in the table below:
Time / secs Concentration of OH- / mol dm-3
0 0.500
100 0.350
200 0.250
300 0.180
400 0.125
500 0.090
600 0.063
700 0.040
800 0.030
(a) From the above information, Plot a suitable graph. The graph MUST
be a hand drawn (plotted) graph.
(3 Marks)
(b) Select 4 suitable points along your graph [see part (a)] and draw
tangents to find the rates. Construct a table of “Rate” against
“Concentration”. Note: The rates need to be calculated and the
calculations shown.
(4 Marks)
(c) Plot a graph of Rate against Concentration. The graph MUST be
a hand drawn (plotted) graph.
(3 Marks)
(d) From your graph in part (c) deduce the Order of Reaction. (1 Mark)
(e) Write a rate equation with respect to concentration of hydroxide ions. (2 Marks)
(f) Calculate the rate constant k from the gradient of the graph,
drawn in part (c). Show and explain your working.
(2 Marks)
Section B: Biological Science (35 marks)
You should read the relevant sections of the recommended textbook, Advanced Biology by
Kent (or suitable level 3 alternatives), and are very strongly advised to read the guidance
about the rules for answering genetics on Canvas (Biology FX3003 – Extras section (Via T8
or T9) along with lecture notes), before answering the question.
Answer all the parts of the question below as fully as possible, justifying your answers as
required. Remember that where two or more genes are involved that the answers should
clearly demonstrate the simultaneous transmission of characteristics.
Where more than one outcome is possible, all outcomes should be shown.
Do not submit hand written / scanned answers – we will be unable to mark them.
Question 4 (Total 35 Marks)
The ability to taste the substance phenylthiocarbamide is controlled by a dominant allele,
and transmitted in normal Mendelian fashion. Red-green colour-blindness is a recessive X
chromosome linked condition.
(a) A normal sighted women who is a non-taster, has a colour-blind father who is a taster,
and a normal sighted tasting mother.
Give the possible genotypes of the women and her parents (with the provision of a suitable
key), AND clearly explain in words the logic used to determine these – This part of the
question does NOT require the use of genetic diagrams such as Punnet squares.
(12 marks)
Answers to Question 4(a) below please:
(b) The woman marries a colour-blind tasting male. Show using genetic diagrams (such as
the inclusion of Punnet squares) and proofing, the possible phenotypic and genotypic nature
of any future children they may have, along with a suitable logical explanation for the answer
given. (23 marks)
Answers to Question 4(b) below please:
everything important is stated there. thank you
-Harvard referencing
-Scientific terms
-use only textbooks (e.g. A level books) or peer-review article that is published in a reputable journal NOT website or NEWSPAPER
-In the chemical science section it is required to make some EQUATIONS and table, plot graphs as well (it says hand drawn but please just include it somehow in this finished work) ask if u have questions
-In the biological science section it is required to make genetic diagrams (I don’t mind if not hand drawn just need it to be there somehow pls)
-I have also included an example for the chemical question 3 in the additional materials
-If you have any questions please do ask

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